Morley, CO (a.k.a. Cima)
This topic was created to provide a link to the "History of Las Animas County" topic.
If you have additional history, Website links, or images to add you are invited to reply. Otherwise please DO NOT reply. Thank you.
Today if you asked where Morley, Colorado was located, or who it was named for, you may, or, may not get the correct answer.
Here is one typical answer from the internet;
"Morley, on U.S 85 and 87 in Las Animas County. Perhaps named for Tom Morley, a local coal mine owner, or for William R. Morley, a construction engineer for the Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, who laid out the line in 1879."
Information on Morley - Gallinas
There was the first Morley, Colorado, established in October 1879, located at the confluence of Gallinas Creek, and Raton Creek, and named after William R. Morley a Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway construction engineer. This Morley was later renamed Gallinas in 1908, after Gallinas Creek. (Gallina (gah-yee-nah) is Spanish for hen, or chicken.)
Portion of 1951 topographical map showing Gallinas.
(Note the location of the cemetery, as "Cem".)
Early photo of Gallinas looking West. - Santa Fe Railway
In 1879 the Santa Fe Station of Morley had, for it's time and location, substantial railroad facilities. in addition to coaling and watering facilities, there was two-story passenger depot/residence and a small iron turntable in order to turn locomotives, and a 146 car storage yard for freight cars. At some point-in-time the iron turntable was removed and replaced with a "wye" to turn the locomotives. The 60 or, so railroad workers either stayed at boarding houses in Trinidad, or converted freight cars at Morley (Gallinas).
In 1923 a concrete bunkhouse was built for the railroad workers at Gallinas, and it remained a watering station for locomotives until 1940.
Information on Cima - Morley
The second Morley, and the one which most of us are familiar with, started as Cima, which means "summit", or "top" in Spanish. Cima was located 1.6 miles south of Gallinas. Cima was listed as a Santa Fe Station in 1901, but, for reasons unknown, was removed from the Santa Fe's Station List in 1904.
Portion of 1951 topographical map showing Morley. The map shows
two inactive mines, and the one active mine. These are depicted by
the "Y" symbol. There should be some indication of mines on the
opposite side of the tracks, but the map doesn't show any.Mining
in Morley began in 1907 on the East side of the railroad tracks.
There are various references that differ in presenting the history of Morley, Colorado. Two references (Ref. 3, & 6) also mentions that there were different names for the Morley Mine itself.
The historical presentation which tends to be most accurate can be found in Santa Fe in the Intermountain West, Colorado Rail Annual No. 23, on page 58, which reads;
"Colorado Fuel & Iron excavated a mine shaft adjacent
to the former station site at Cima in 1906,
resulting in a shuffling of station names on
Raton Pass by the Santa Fe. The new mine was
named after CF&I executive and mine owner
Thomas Morley. Santa Fe had named it's station
after William Ray Morley, the locating engineer
who had surveyed the pass in the 1870s. Due to
the local historical significance of his name,
and to avoid unending confusion, the station
names were shuffled. Morley was given to the
old Cima location and the old Morley was
This allowed the Santa Fe to move the Santa Fe Station "Morley" to the new location which was once Cima.
Previously mentioned, the mine itself had apparently went through several name changes.
"Opened in February, 1907 the new mine and camp,
known briefly as Katcina, then Swastika, were soon
named Morley by Company officials." (Ref. 3, page 54)
Additionally, a footnote on page 54 states;
"Records indicate that some mining had been
done at or near the same spot in early 1885."
(Note: Indian "spirit-beings" are called Katcina. Various spellings. i.e. Kacina, Kachina, Katsina)
"The mine was first called Kacina, then Swastika,
and later changed to Morley." (Ref. 6, page 29)
The above image shows three figures on a blotter advertising "Kebler Coal"
for CF&I Corp. A early sign painted on the front of the Morley Power House
finds six of these figures in two groups. One set facing south, and the other
facing north. One could presume that these figures were "kachina" figures.
The above image of a Diavolo Coals coaster show the 3
"presumed kachina" figures (Note: Diavolo is Italian for devil,
and is pronounced dee-AHH-voh-low.)
CF&I sign with the 3 "presumed Kachina" figures. A close inspection of these figures
show that they are really "red devils" carrying coal. Surprise.
Denver Library Online Image
"View of a Colorado Supply Company truck parked near a building probably in Trinidad (Las Animas County), Colorado. A wicker basket, wooden crate, and burlap bags are in the truck. A sign reads: "Sherwin-Williams Paints and Varnishes Cover Most Look Best Wear Longest Most Economical Full Measure." Date [between 1910 and 1920?] (DPL call number is A673.)(This Model T Ford is most likely the delivery truck for the Swastika Mine at Morley (Cima). The year of the truck is 1917-22 model T with an added extension to make a longer wheelbase. This extension required that a duel chain-drive be incorporated. This comprised 2 roller chains driven by the standard Ford rear axle, on both sides, to large sprockets on the rear wheels. - RR-Guy)
Morley overview. ca.1930-45 Photographer unknown.
Links for Cima - Morley
Brief description of Morley.
Aerial photo of the Morley's St Aloysius Catholic Church.
Denver Library Online Images of Cima - Morley
"View of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company coal camp of Morley in Las Animas County, Colorado. The Colorado Supply Company store, camp doctor's office, and company boarding house are housed in a large mission style structure with exposed vigas, towers, and a stucco exterior. The superintendents house with paved steps leading to the front porch sits on a hill. Shows square miners' houses with hipped roofs. Denver & Rio Grande and Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe train cars sit on tracks nearby." Date [between 1907 and 1915?] (DPL call number is X4308.)
"View of a coal mine and camp owned by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. A group of men and women stand near covered wagons close to the camp. The CF&I stables are in the distance." Date [between 1890 and 1900 (DPL call number is X-62746.)
"View of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company coal camp of Morley in Las Animas County, Colorado. The Colorado Supply Company store, doctor's office, and company boarding house occupy a large mission style structure with towers and a stucco exterior. The employees' club house is a brick structure with light colored concrete decoration and a small porch extending from the front of the building. Show worker's 4-room houses with hipped roofs and a central chimney. Outbuildings, coal sheds, and privies (outhouses) are in the yards of the houses. In one yard a tent, and small wooden shed may be bachelor's houses. Smoke emerges from an Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe train that moves through town." Date [between 1907 and 1915?] (DPL call number is X4309.)
"View of the mining town of Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. The Colorado Supply Company store, with towers and stucco exterior, sits on the hill above the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe and Denver & Rio Grande tracks. The workers' four-room houses with hipped roofs and central chimney sit opposite the store on the hill above Raton Creek." Date [between 1907 and 1915?] (DPL call number is X5015.)(Not the Rio Grande tracks. Only Santa Fe. - RR-Guy)
"View of the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company coal camp of Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. The Colorado Supply Store, camp doctor's office, and company boarding house building is in the distance. Shows company housing, the powerhouse, and the employee's club house. Train cars sit on the Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe railroad tracks at the edge of town." Date [between 1907 and 1930?] (DPL call number is X4999.)
"A herd of mules eat at a trough and feeding area at Morley, a Colorado Fuel and Iron Company coal camp in Las Animas County, Colorado. Shows a tipple and mine tailings pile. A sign on an industrial building in the distance reads: "Morley Mine, Colorado Fuel & Iron Company."" Date [between 1907 and 1930?] (DPL call number is X4919.)
"A miner leans in the doorway of the lamp house at the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company mine at Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. The man wears work clothes, boots, and a cap with an oil wick cap lamp. The lamp building is a small cinder block structure. A chalkboard mounted near the door reads: "May 7, 1914, Working Places, O.K. 25, 86 Miners." The bath house is a one story structure with a porch entry, stucco exterior, and shingle roof." Date May 7, 1914. (DPL call number is X5001.)
(Just in front of the man is a "manway" entrance to the mine. - RR-Guy
"Teachers stand with their pupils in front of the elementary school in Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. Shows a mission style stucco building with a dormer." Date  (DPL call number is X5019.)
"An automobile sits in front of the Colorado Supply Company store, camp doctor's office and boarding house in Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. Shows a mission style stucco building with vigas and towers. Boys stand in the corner of the building."
Date [between 1910 and 1917?] (DPL call number is X5018.)
"View of the miners' club building in Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. Shows a stucco building with a false front and a fence. A shed roof shades the front entrance." Date [between 1908 and 1915?] (DPL call number is X5016.)
"A chicken stands in the dirt road that runs in front of miners' houses built by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company in Morley (Las Animas County), Colorado. Shows square four-room stone residences with hipped roofs and covered entryways." Date [between 1907 and 1915?] (DPL call number is X5017.)
"Train #20, The Chief; 14 cars, 35 MPH. Photographed: near Morley, Colo., April 9, 1944." Photographer - Otto C. Perry (DPL call number is OP-1936.) (Photo is taken looking south, up the pass. The track on the right is the storage track for loaded coal cars. One of the 3 spur tracks can be seen in the foreground. This spur was used as a "run-away" track. - RR-Guy)
*********************************************Function & Operation of the Morley Mine Tipple/Breaker
Tourist attractions at Morley included not only the mules, but also the visitors were allowed to view the tipple/breaker in operation. It is assumed that the tourists were not allowed on the tipple itself, but could watch the coal cars and miners exiting, and entering the mine along with the dumping of the coal at the mine end of the tipple.
Morley Mine: (Facts obtained from conversation with 1940's Morley Miner.)
(1) Morley mine(s) were sloping, single level mine(s).
(2) The mines had high levels of "coal bed methane" gas.
(3) Coal mining was accomplished utilizing mules to move coal from the outer galleries to the "main" or "central" gallery.
(4) A mule team(s) consisted of 1, 2, or 9 mules.
(5) A "Trip" was 15 mine car loads, either full or empty.
(6) The "trip" was removed from the mine on the "center track" with a rope connected to a cable from the Engine House. Empty cars were returned to the mine on the outer tracks.
(7) Coal was classified into three basic sizes. "Lump", "nut", and "slack". The first two were sub-classified.
(8) Different sizes were loaded into different railroad cars. "Slack" went to the "Slack" pile.
(9) There was a "slack car" which was pulled up to the top of the "slack" pile by a cable from the Engine House.
(10) Coal cars with rock material went directly to this "slack car".
(11) The Engine House on the north side of the tipple had two individually operated cable drums.
(12) Morley did not have any coke ovens.
Morley Mine: (Equipment(s) required, or operation(s) required to function.)
Due to high levels of coal bed methane;
(1) they may have had to blast with compressed air.
(2) only pick and shovel were utilized in the mine.
(3) large ventilation fans were utilized.
Morley Mine Tipple - Screening Plant & Breaker
The soft bituminus coal produced at the Morley Mine had very good coking properties, and was produced in three basic sizes. From the largest to the smallest they were:
"Lump"- Which could be further "screened" to produce;
(1) 6 inch "lump".
(2) 3 inch "lump".
(3) 1¼ "lump".
"Nut" - Which could be further "screened" to produce;
(1) 1-1/4 inches to 3 inch "nut" coal.
(2) 3/4 inch to 1-1/4 inch "nut" coal.
(3) 5/8 inch to 3/4 inch "nut" coal.
"Slack"- less than 5/8 inch. Described as very fine coal, or nearly "dust". This, along with rocks, slate, etc. went to the "slack" pile.
Coal processing steps:
(1) The coal from the mine was, most likely, weighed at the tipple
by a Weigh Operator. Each car of coal coming out of the mine had the miner's identification mark, usually a brass, numbered tag which would allow the Weigh Operator the ability to total up a miner's daily coal production. The miners were paid by the ton.
(2) After being weighed, each car was dumped into a gate controlled hopper, or bin above "shaker screens", by the Tipple Operator.
(3) Several "shaker screens" were possibly used to intially size the coal. "Shaker screens" were typically 4 to 8 feet wide, and 9 to 21 feet long.
The "shaker screens" were most likely manned with "bone pickers" whose job it was to separate any rocks from the actual coal before any additional screening.
(4) Sized coal either went directly into railroad cars, or fed by conveyor to additional "screening" process. This could have been accomplished by a "cylinder", or "revolving" screen which had the ability to screen coal to many sizes before exiting the end. The "revolving" screen was mounted at a slight down angle allowing the coal to move towards the end during the screening process. The "cylinder", or "revolving" screen was typically 6 to 8 feet in diameter, and 12 to 24 feet long.
CYLINDER OR REVOLVING DRUM SCREEN
Image of a drum screen awaiting installation in coal breaker.
(ca. Early 1900's) (This is not Morley. - RR-Guy)
(5) Coal that needed to be made smaller most likely was fed into a "roller breaker".
1940's image of tipple showing steam above the coal breaker
In the above image of the tipple, a "roller breaker" is probably at this end of the tipple beneath where the steam can be seen rising. After processing by the "roller breaker" the coal is then loaded by chute to the railroad cars beneath the breaker.
Compare the below ca.1930-45 image of the tipple when it was not operating.
There were four loading tracks with scales to determine the weight of the empty rail car before, and after loading it with coal.
The different tracks would usually determine what size of coal is to be loaded. The track closest to the mine would normally be used to load "lump" coal. The other tracks were probably used to load various sizes of "nut" coal.
The above drawing shows typical loading scenario at the Morley Tipple/Breaker.
LOADING POCKETS BENEATH BREAKER
Image of typical loading docks at coal mine.
(ca. Early 1900's) (This is not Morley. - RR-Guy)
Rail facilities of the Morley Mine included storage for empty cars to the south of the tipple and storage to the north for loaded rail cars. The power house had rails that went down to the tipple loading chutes, and could be re-positioned at the power house when loaded, to supply the two power house boilers with fuel.
The storage track to the north extended to Gallinas, the old Morley, which made the storage track over 1.5 miles long. An interesting feature of this storage track was the three small spurs to the west. These were "runaway" spurs. The switches to these spurs always point towards them in case a car's brakes failed, while mine personnel allowed the loaded car to coast to other loaded cars on the storage track. It is not known, by whom, nor when the switches would be switched to their normal, position.
The above image shows one of the 3 "runaway"
spurs on the loaded car storage track. View
is looking north towards Trinidad.
Santa Fe 3800 Class locomotive in reverse backing up the storage track to Morley.
The Morley depot can be seen between the two telephone poles on the left. Also, in
the distance, can be seen several rail cars loaded with coal, and the "slack" pile.
Date of the photo is probably ca. 1939. A brakeman can be seen standing on the
front of the locomotive. Photographer is unknown. The location of this photo can
be seen in the second topographical map above along the tracks where the words
"SANTA FE" are found. - RR-Guy
Here is a ca. 2002 view from the top of the slack pile looking back towards Trinidad.
The locomotive in the previous image was in this area backing towards Morley to the
right. The mine's trackage has since been removed, and is now a gravel road
Note: Several methods of screening were probably used at the Morley tipple, and possibly at different times. It is not known if any of the tipple's machinery was updated over the years of operation. The few screening methods suggested above, are done so because of what was available in 1906, what was efficient, what was inexpensive, and what was not detrimental to the tipple's structural components, i.e. vibration.
It should also be noted that the different functions of the tipple/breaker operated in "concert". That is, when there was coal at the "mine end" of the tipple the tipple would be termed, "In Operation". When the Tipple Operator dumped the first load of coal from a mine car, all railroad cars would have already been placed under loading chutes, the roller breaker would be in motion, and most, if not all conveyors would be moving, and all mechanical screening components would be operating.
Alternative Forms of Preliminary Screening:
"Grizzly" The coal simply put through a stationary screen where the oversize is removed, crushed, and would then be returned to the raw coal. This type screen may be only parallel metal bars placed with a pre-determined open spaces between the bars, and the screen also having a proper down slope so "lump" coal will be directed into a conveyor. This type is inexpensive to build, and maintain, but is not as efficient in it's screening ability.
*********************************************Railroad History of Morley
The Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway completed the railine from Trinidad to the top of Raton Pass on December 7, 1878.
(1.) Santa Fe's Raton Pass, by Jared Harper, 1983
(2.) Colorado Ghost Towns - Past & Present, by Robert L. Brown, 1972
(3.) Las Animas County Ghost Towns and Mining Camps, by F. Dean Sneed, 2000
(4.) Santa Fe in the Intermountain West, Colorado Rail Annual No. 23, published by the Colorado Railroad Museum, 1998
(5.) Colorado Railroads; Chronological Development, by Tivis "Tiv" Wilkins, 1974.
(6.) Echoes of Yesteryear, Volume II, by Patrick L Donachy, Revised 1992
(7.) Mining Engineers' Handbook, 3rd Edition, Robert Peele, 1918, 1927, 1941
(8.) Google "Public Domain" eBook (i.e. Camp and Plant, CF&I Co. - Bulletin)
(9.) Internet Resources